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Output Devices

Inkjet printer

Inkjet printing is a type of computer printing that recreates a digital image by propelling droplets of ink onto paper, plastic, or other substrates. Inkjet printers are the most commonly used type of printer, and range from small inexpensive consumer models to expensive professional machines.


Laser Printer

Laser printing is an electrostatic digital printing process. It produces high-quality text and graphics (and moderate-quality photographs) by repeatedly passing a laser beam back and forth over a negatively charged cylinder called a "drum" to define a differentially charged image. The drum then selectively collects electrically charged powdered ink (toner), and transfers the image to paper, which is then heated in order to permanently fuse the text, imagery, or both. As with digital photocopiers, laser printers employ a xerographic printing process. However, laser printing differs from analogue photocopiers in that the image is produced by the direct scanning of the medium across the printer's photoreceptor. This enables laser printing to copy images more quickly than most photocopiers.


3D printer

3D printing is a process in which material is joined or solidified under computer control to create a three-dimensional object, with material being added together. 3D printing is used in both rapid prototyping and additive manufacturing. Objects can be of almost any shape or geometry and typically are produced using digital model data from a 3D model or another electronic data source such as an Additive Manufacturing File (AMF). There are many different technologies, like stereolithography (SLA) or fused deposit modelling. Unlike material removed from a stock in the conventional machining process, 3D printing or Additive Manufacturing builds a three-dimensional object from computer-aided design (CAD) model or AMF file, usually by successively adding material layer by layer.


2D and 3D cutters

A 3D laser cutter can recognize all sides of a substrate to make more complex shapes. A 3D laser cutter can also work with a cube instead of a flat piece of a material. A 2D and 3D cutter is a high-powered laser that cuts material such as thin metals or woods, used mostly for industrial purposes. They make precise and clean cuts, it is also is very fast which makes it efficient. It is first designed through a computer and then sent through a laser cutter to give you the design. 2D Laser Cutters can only recognise the face of the material. Laser cutters are used mostly for parts of cars, aircrafts, or buildings. They can also engrave materials, so it can be used for license plates.


Speakers and headphones

Headphones are a pair of small loudspeakers. They are electroacoustic transducers, which convert an electrical signal to a corresponding sound. Headphones let a single user listen to an audio source privately, in contrast to a loudspeaker, which emits sound into the open air for anyone nearby to hear. Headphones connect to a signal source such as an audio amplifier, radio, CD player, portable media player, mobile phone, video game console, or electronic musical instrument, either directly using a cord, or using wireless technology such as Bluetooth, DECT or FM radio.



An actuator is a component of a machine that is responsible for moving and controlling a mechanism or system i.e. opening a valve. An actuator requires a control signal and a source of energy. The control signal is relatively low energy and may be electric voltage or current, pneumatic or hydraulic pressure, or even human power. Its main energy source may be an electric current, hydraulic fluid pressure, or pneumatic pressure. When it receives a control signal, an actuator responds by converting the signal's energy into mechanical motion. An actuator is the mechanism by which a control system acts upon an environment. The control system can be simple (a fixed mechanical or electronic system), software-based (e.g. a printer driver, robot control system), a human, or any other input.


Flat panel display screens


Liquid Crystal Display

Liquid crystal displays (LCDs) are lightweight, compact, portable, cheap, more reliable, and easier on the eyes than cathode ray tube screens. LCD screens use a thin layer of liquid crystal, a liquid that exhibits crystalline properties. It is between two electrically conducting plates. The top plate has transparent electrodes deposited on it, and the back plate is illuminated so that the viewer can see the images on the screen. By applying controlled electrical signals across the plates, various segments of the liquid crystal can be activated, causing changes in their light diffusing or polarizing properties. These segments can either transmit or block light. An image is produced by passing light through selected segments of the liquid crystal to the viewer. They are used in various electronics like watches, calculators, and notebook computers.


Light Emitting Diode Display

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a two-lead semiconductor light source. It is a p–n junction diode that emits light when activated. When a suitable current is applied to the leads, electrons can recombine with electron holes within the device, releasing energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence, and the colour of the light (corresponding to the energy of the photon) is determined by the energy band gap of the semiconductor. LEDs are typically small (less than 1 mm2) and integrated optical components may be used to shape the radiation pattern.




Liquid Crystal Projector

An LCD (liquid crystal display) projector is a type of video projector for displaying video, images or computer data on a screen or other flat surface. It is a modern equivalent of the slide projector or overhead projector. To display images, LCD projectors typically send light from a metal-halide lamp through a prism or series of dichroic filters that separates light to three polysilicon panels – one each for the red, green and blue components of the video signal. As polarized light passes through the panels (combination of polarizer, LCD panel and analyser), individual pixels can be opened to allow light to pass or closed to block the light. The combination of open and closed pixels can produce a wide range of colours and shades in the projected image.


Digital Light Projector

Digital Light Processing (DLP) is a display device based on optical micro-electro-mechanical technology that uses a digital micromirror device. It was created in 1987 by Larry Hornbeck of Texas Instruments. While the DLP imaging device was made by Texas Instruments, the first DLP-based projector was introduced by Digital Projection Ltd in 1997. DLP is used in a variety of display applications from traditional static displays to interactive displays and non-traditional embedded applications including medical, security, and industrial uses.



1.            Computer Model 1



1.            Outputs worksheet